Friday, February 8, 2013

Cisco releases EIGRP as an RFC

Cisco announced that they are releasing the basic EIGRP to the IETF as an Informational RFC. I think this is very welcome, and probably they realized that people are moving away from this protocol if they want to work on a multivendor environment, and Cisco just can't keep it for themselves.

On the other hand they also say that: "Advanced features of EIGRP, such as EIGRP stub, needed for DMVPN and large-scale campus deployment, will not be released to the IETF." Are they serious???  First, I wouldn't call the stub feature as advanced, in my experience you must have it, if you want to run EIGRP on a mid size (30 - 50 devices) environment cause otherwise it's just not scalable, even with implemented summarization and stub features, you can start to get stuck in actives from time to time on this size, causing hard time to network operators.

So with this release I don't expect organization starting to migrate to it, at least I wouldn't do it. I think w/o the stub feature you can only deploy it in small size environment, where usually there are no multiple vendors. While the direction is good, they should release all the features.

Cisco Q&A:

Sunday, February 3, 2013

Backtrack Forensics: PTK

Menu: Forensics -> Forensic Suites
Directory: various
Official Website:
License: BSD type (?)

The PTK is an alternative to the Autopsy forensic framework. It has two editions, one is free, and the other is not. BT includes the free version.

Once we click on starting it, we get a webpage to configure it. The root password for the MySQL database is "toor", if you haven't changed it.

After that the configuration is complete.

On the next window we can apply for our free activation code.

And that's how far I could get. I haven't received the activation code yet.

Saturday, February 2, 2013

Backtrack Forensics: Digital Forensic Framework (DFF)

Menu: Forensics -> Forensic Suites
Directory: various
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v2

DFF is a free and open source forensic tool, which can perform the most common forensic tasks, like image and file system analysis, file carving, memory analysis, etc...

For the example here I picked up image #11 from
I used the GUI version, and once it's started, we can select "File -> Open evidence"

Once the image is added we will see its details on the right. In the middle we can right click on the image name, and select "Open with", which will do an analysis / task with one of the modules.

Here I choose "Search -> carvergui" which will do file carving on the disk, based on file header signatures. I selected everything, and hit "Start".

Once, it's done, the results will appear in the left tree, and we can browse through.

I played around with a few tools, but I think the other individual tools, for specific tasks, are much better then this. It's not bad, but there are better stuff.

Backtrack Forensics: The Sleuth Kit & Autopsy

Menu: Forensics -> Forensic Suites
Directory: various
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v2, and various, check website for more details

The Sleuth Kit is a collection of tools, which are created for analyzing disk images and file system data, the functionality can be extended with plugins. Autopsy is the graphical front end to the Sleuth Kit. As the set contains quite much tools, I will go over only some of the basics, and then have a look on Autopsy.

mmls can give us partition information (size, where it starts, end) and cluster size info.
mmls /dev/sdc

fls can print the file names found on a device.
fls -o 32 /dev/sdc - will list only the root directory, -o sets the offset to the file system, which we know from the mmls output
fls -pr -o 32 /dev/sdc - prints full path, and all files recursively
fls -lpr -o 32 /dev/sdc - prints long information (time, etc...)

icat can print the contents of a file, we need to supply the inode number for that, what we know from fls.
icat -o 32 /dev/sdc 108546

I will use the following test image for the demo:

First we need to select setup autopsy from the menu, to go through a few settings. After that we can start it from "/pentest/forensics/autopsy" with:

First we will get the following error: did not return a true value at /pentest/forensics/autopsy/lib// line 62.
Compilation failed in require at ./autopsy line 56.
BEGIN failed--compilation aborted at ./autopsy line 56.

This can be fixed by entering setting "$LOCKDIR = '/tmp'" in the file. After that it will start, and we can navigate in the browser to:


Autopsy works with the following structure:
Cases -> Hosts -> Images
So let's start with creating a case.

We can populate the case with some basic information:

Once we have a case, select "New Host" on the window, and we will get to here:

Once we have a host, we can add an image file.

Once we selected the image file (no browse function, we need to type the file path), on the next screen we can chose to calculate MD5 hash for the disk image. We can also see that it was recognized as a NTFS partition.

Once we added the image and clicked on the "Analyze" button, we can do several things. On the "Image details" we get general meta information from the image itself.

On the "Data Unit" we can enter a cluster, and it will print its content, we can chose to display it in ASCII, HEX or ASCII strings.

On the "File Analysis" menu, we can browse the file system, look for files, etc... if we click on a file, it will display its content in the frame below, and again we can chose the same view options.

On the "Meta Data" menu, we can enter the MFT entry number (which we can figure out from the previous place), and display meta information from a file.

Backtrack Forensics: Xplico

Menu: Forensics -> Network Forensics
Directory: /usr/local/bin/
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v2 + Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

Xplico is an open source network forensic tool, which can extract various data from network traffic, it can either work from a capture file or do a capture itself. It can extract images, emails, web pages, VoIP streams, chat (MSN, IRC,...), telnet, ftp data, etc... It has a command line and a graphical interface. Let's see some basic usage:

I will use the graphical version, which we can start from the Backtrack menu. We get this:

We can go to the http://localhost:9876/ address, and can login from there.
The default users are:
admin/xplico - for administration, we can't do the normal work with this account.
xplico/xplico - for normal work. 
Once we logged in, we need to open a new case. We need to decide there if we will work from files or from live captures later. Both won't work in a single case.

Once we have a case, we can click on it, and thus start work.

In the case, we need to create sessions. where we can load the pcap files, or do the captures.

Once we have a session, we can enter to it.

Once we enter to a session, we can upload file at the right bottom corner, or if we have a live capture case, then start the capture there. On the left side we have the navigation bar, where we can select the various extracted information, and browse within them. At the middle, we have an overview, about how much items we have in each various data type.

Here is an example of images:

Here is a picture of the web URls found in the session.

That's all in short. I run a few captures, and the tool doesn't really find all of the images in a session. It might work better with other items.

Backtrack Forensics: tcpreplay suite

Menu: Forensics -> Network Forensics
Directory: /pentest/sniffers/tcpreplay
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v3

From the website: "Tcpreplay is a suite of tools written by  Aaron Turner for UNIX (and Win32 under Cygwin) operating systems which gives you the ability to use previously captured traffic in libpcap format to test a variety of network devices. It allows you to classify traffic as client or server, rewrite Layer 2, 3 and 4 headers and finally replay the traffic back onto the network and through other devices such as switches, routers, firewalls, NIDS and IPS's. Tcpreplay supports both single and dual NIC modes for testing both sniffing and inline devices."

The suite consists of the following tools:
tcpbridge - bridge two networks with tcprewrite
tcpprep - tool to use preprocess pcap files, and will create cache files, which will be used by tcpreplay or tcprewrite. It will classify packets as client -> server or server -> client.
tcprewrite - pcap editor to rewrite layer 2, 3 or 4 details
tcpreplay - replays packets to network
tcpreplay-edit - replays and edits pcap files to the network

not found in Backtract 5 R3:
"tcpliveplay - Replays network traffic stored in a pcap file on live networks using new TCP connections
tcpcapinfo - raw pcap file decoder and debugger"

Basically we can capture a traffic between a client and server, and replay it anywhere in the network. For actually testing a network, we will need to run tcpreplay in two locations, in the server and in the client side, where the client side will replay packets of the original client, and the server the other part. The MAC address, IP addresses and port numbers can be changed, thus this way we can create the same flow anywhere in the network, and check how the different locations behave.

To simply replay all packets from a capture:
./tcpreplay --intf1=eth0 test.pcap

A good article about testing Cisco WAAS with tcpreplay:

Backtrack Forensics: tcpflow

Menu: Forensics -> Network Forensics
Directory: /usr/local/bin/tcpflow
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v2+

"tcpflow is a program that captures data transmitted as part of TCP connections (flows), and stores the data in a way that is convenient for protocol analysis and debugging. Each TCP flow is stored in its own file. Thus, the typical TCP flow will be stored in two files, one for each direction. tcpflow can also process stored 'tcpdump' packet flows."

In Backtrack 5 R3 the installed version is 1.2.7, and it has a bug, that will terminate the program as soon as it started, see details here:

So we need to upgrade it:
apt-get install tcpflow
at the time of this writing, the new version is 1.3.0. You can check it with:
tcpflow -V

Let's see an example:
tcpflow -p -i eth0 tcp port http
Here I filter the capture to HTTP ports (80) only, and set the interface not to be in promiscuous mode (-p). I visited "", and it created 6 flows, 3 pairs (1-1 for each direction). It supports the same filtering options as tcpdump.

The flow files actually contains the extracted data from the TCP sessions, so we won't see packet headers, etc...

We can read sessions from a pcap file (-r), specify output directory (-o) other than the default, which is the current, turn on verbose mode (-v), or print the output only to the console (-c) instead of files.
I think it does a pretty good job with extracting content from TCP flows.

The tool can't handle IP fragments, and in that case it happens the reconstruction of a flow will not be correct.

Backtrack Forensics: Wireshark

Menu: Forensics -> Network Forensics
Directory: /usr/local/bin/wireshark
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v2+

This "article" is here just to take a note of this tool as well for completeness. It's so huge, that I even don't try to write about it, you can read the manual of buy their official book, which is 1000 pages.

The tool description from the official website Q&A:
"Wireshark® is a network protocol analyzer. It lets you capture and interactively browse the traffic running on a computer network. It has a rich and powerful feature set and is world's most popular tool of its kind. It runs on most computing platforms including Windows, OS X, Linux, and UNIX. Network professionals, security experts, developers, and educators around the world use it regularly. It is freely available as open source, and is released under the GNU General Public License version 2. It is developed and maintained by a global team of protocol experts, and it is an example of a disruptive technology. Wireshark used to be known as Ethereal®."

Friday, February 1, 2013

Backtrack Forensics: File recovery with testdisk & photorec

Menu: Forensics -> Forensic Carving Tools
Directory: /pentest/forensics/testdisk
Official Website:
License: GNU GLP v2+

testdisk is a data recovery tool, it was primarily designed to restore damaged partition, fix deleted boot sectors and undelete files. It supports very large range of file systems. You can find the list on their webpage. For the demo I choose forensic test image #7 from This is an NTFS file system with a couple of deleted files, it has fragmented files, NTFS alternate datastream, so pretty good for testing. We can also have the files' MD5 hashes, so we can check how good our results are.

To start the tool, simply type:

./testdisk_static /root/Desktop/7-ntfs-undel.dd

On the first screen select the disk, and click proceed, you want to work on, in this case we have only one option. If we start it without an image name it will allow us to select from the system drives. We can always go back to the previous screen with pressing "q".

On the next step we should select the partition table. In my experience best to choose "None" as then its detection is the best. If we choose "Intel" it might not find it.

On the next screen we can do couple of things. Let's run an "Analyse" first.

This will do a quick analysis of the disk and partitions, we need to hit a couple of buttons to finish.

If we go back and choose the "Geometry" option, we can change the hard disk properties, if we now what they were, and think that the auto detection was not correct. It's good in our example.

Let's go back, and select the "Advanced" option, here we can fix boot sectors, recover files, or make an image. I will move to "Undelete" cause I want to recover the files.

Here, I simply press "a" to select all files, I want to recover all of them, to see how it works out. We can restore a single file with "c", select one with ":" and finally restore selected with "C".

When we press "C" it will offer us to select a location where to save the files. Once we found the directory press "C" to copy the files.

After that I made an MD5 cheksum to all files with:
md5deep -e -r /root/Desktop/testdisk
and if we compare the MD5s found on the webpage of the image, we can see that all of them are correct.

Next tool is photorec, which can restores files based on their signatures, similar to foremost and scalpel. Originally it was developed to restore image, that's why the name, but since then many different file types were added. I used here test image #11 from the same site. We can start it similarly to testdisk:

./photorec_static /root/Desktop/11-carve-fat.dd

Then we can choose our disk. Again if we don't specify it will offer the system drives.

After that we can choose between a few options. Let's go to "File Opt" first, where we can chose which file types we want to recover.

You can see that we have lots of options, I simply left the default selection. Press "q" to go back.

Then choose "Search", after that we need to specify the file system. I know it's FAT in this case.

Then we need to select again where to store the recovered files.

Once the search finished, it will tell us how many files were found.

We won't have the file names in this case, cause the restoration was based on file headers and not file system entries. In some cases it will add a name if it can be found in some metadata. I run an MD5 check again, and we can see that the signature is matching most of the cases. It's not perfect, but still pretty god.

There is one more tool in their directory called "fidentify", which can do file type identification, using the same database as photorec. Run it with specifying the directory:

./fidentify_static /root/Desktop/testdisk/

and as we can see it prints the file type.